Irrigation is the foundation for stable high-yielding rice farming systems throughout the world, and Indonesia is no exception. The reliability of annual rice production is greatly enhanced through increased control over the timing and volume of water that is made available to the crop during its growing season.
Why does rice grow well in Indonesia?
Rice cultivation is well-suited in regions that have a warm climate, low labor costs and high amounts of rainfall as this staple crop is labor-intensive (to cultivate) and requires ample supplies of water. Regions that meet these requirements are mainly found in Asia.
How does rice grow in Indonesia?
Rice is grown at varying altitudes, with about 75 per cent of plantings in irrigated areas and less than 10 percent on rainfed lowlands. Most rice production takes place on the island of Java under irrigation. Lowland varieties belong mainly to the indica sub-species and about 85% of them are high-yielding.
When was rice first cultivated in Indonesia?
Preserved ancient botanical evidence in the form of rice phytoliths has confirmed that people farmed domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) in the interior of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, by at least 3,500 years ago.
What is Indonesia good at producing?
The country is a major exporter of crude petroleum and natural gas. In addition, Indonesia is one of the world’s main suppliers of rubber, coffee, cocoa, and palm oil; it also produces a wide range of other commodities, such as sugar, tea, tobacco, copra, and spices (e.g., cloves).
Is rice native to Indonesia?
Agriculture in Indonesia started as a means to grow and provide food. Rice, coconut, sugar palm, taro, tubers, shallots and tropical fruits were among the earliest produce being cultivated in the archipelago. Evidence of wild rice cultivation on the island of Sulawesi dates back from 3000 BCE.
What type of rice is grown in Indonesia?
The dominant rice varieties in lowland areas today are IR64 (released in 1986), Cisadane (released in 1980), IR36 (released in 1977), Krueng Aceh (released in 1981), IR42 (released in 1980), and Memberamo (recently released). High yielding varieties have also not been widely used in tidal swamps and swampy lands.
How many crops of rice can be grown per year in Indonesia?
According to the Ministry of Public Works, approximately 84% of the total rice area in Indonesia in 2012 was irrigated while the remaining 16% relied on rainfall. Rice is grown year-round, with some farmers being able to grow three crops a year, but it is common to grow two rice crops a year.
Why is rice grown in Java?
However, the main rice-producing island is Java, particularly Central Java. As Central Java is surrounded by volcanic mountains and abundant water sources, it makes it a fertile agriculture land and full of potentials to increase national rice supply.
How much rice is produced in Indonesia per year?
In 2020, approximately 55.16 million tons of paddy were produced in Indonesia. Indonesia is one of the world’s leading rice producers and rice is the staple food for most Indonesians.
Production of paddy in Indonesia from 2011 to 2020 (in million metric tons)
|Characteristic||Production of paddy in million tons|
Which countries produce the most rice?
Leading countries based on the production of milled rice in 2019/2020 (in million metric tons)*
|Characteristic||Production in million metric tons|
Is rice grown in Asia?
Most of the rice is grown and consumed in Asia, from Pakistan in the west to Japan in the east. ‘Rice-producing Asia’ (defined as Asia excluding Mongolia and the countries of Central Asia) accounts for roughly 90% of world rice production.
What type of rice is grown in Bali?
The Balinese cultivate and eat several different types of rice: traditional white Bali rice, “new,” green revolution, modern white rice, a type of dry rice (padi gaga) grown in the mountains, ketan (white, sticky glutinous rice), barak (glutinous red rice), and injin (glutinous black rice).
Is Indonesia a poor or rich country?
As an upper-middle income country and member of the G20, Indonesia is classified as a newly industrialized country. It is the 15th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 7th largest in terms of GDP (PPP).
What problems do farmers face in Indonesia?
As in the rest of Asia, Indonesian agriculture is dominated by smallholders. Their problems are poverty and indebtedness. A universal feature of growing economies is the decline of agriculture as a share of both GDP and total employment. There are two principal causes for this long-term process of structural change.
Is Indonesia richer than India?
With a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of $2.6 trillion, India is a significantly bigger economy than Indonesia ($1.01 trillion). … Consequently, its nominal per-capita GDP ($1,983 in 2017) is significantly lower than Indonesia’s ($3,876).